Return Merchandise Authorization (RMA)
The Return merchandise authorization (RMA) functionality allows handling situations when a customer returns items for repair and maintenance, or for refund or replacement.
The functionality can be switched on at Settings -> System settings -> Enterprise functions -> RMA.
If RMA functionality is switched on, then:
- the tab Customer returns (RMAs) appears in the CRM section,
- and tab Inspections appears in the Procurement section.
- It's possible to accept return goods, inspect these, repair or maintain, provide replacements, and refunds.
- What is a customer return? What is an RMA order?
- What are the available RMA types?
- What are the steps of the RMA process?
- How to add returned items into inventory?
- How to receive returned products into stock?
- How to inspect the returned products for deciding the RMA type?
- How to process a refund only?
- How to receive returned products and process a refund?
- How to receive returned products without a refund?
- How to process a repair or maintenance of products?
- How to process a replacement product?
- How to receive returned products and reject the return?
Types of customer returns, RMA types
The following RMA types are available:
- Credit only - provide a refund only, without returning the products.
- Repair - repair the products.
- Repair and invoice - repair the products and invoice the customer for the repair.
- Replacement - send replacement products to the customer. Possible to receive returned products.
- Receipt and credit - receive the returned products and provide a refund.
- Receipt and no credit - receive the returned products without a refund.
- Reject and ship back - reject the return based on the inspection of the returned products, and ship the products back to the customer.
Generally, the RMA process has several steps
Processing a customer return takes place in several steps:
- When a customer wishes to return items, a new RMA order must be created.
- When items are received, a target stock lot is created and it goes to inspection for the decision whether the items should be repaired, replaced, refunded, just received to stock, or rejected and shipped back. The decision can be made upfront by choosing the RMA type in the RMA's details.
- Items that are received for RMA inspection are not counted in inventory. But these can be found in Stock -> Stock lots by statuses that start with “RMA”.
- If the item should be repaired, a new service order should be created. (A service order is a special type of Manufacturing Order)
- If the item should be replaced, a new item should be booked.
- When an item can be shipped (after service order is fulfilled or replacement item has been booked or item was rejected) status of the RMA order is automatically changed to Ready for shipment. To ship, open the RMA order, scroll to Shipments section and add a shipment. Once all items are picked for shipment, the status of the RMA order is automatically changed to Shipped and invoiced.
Issuing an invoice or giving a refunding
Invoices can be made in the RMA order's details at the Invoices section:
- If the repair should be done at the customer's expense, issue an invoice.
- If the return is rejected and shipping is on the customer's expense, issue an invoice.
- If the decision is to refund the customer, create a credit invoice.
Adding returned items to inventory
By default, items that are received via RMA orders, are not added to inventory. If the item is returned and should be added to the inventory:
- Open the RMA order at CRM -> Customer returns (RMAs)
- Click on target stock lot.
- Change the status from RMA returned to Received.